New catalyst can help turn carbon dioxide into plastic

Scientists have created a catalyst that can efficiently convert carbon dioxide to ethylene, which is used to produce the most common type of plastic.
At the heart of this work is the carbon dioxide reduction reaction, wherein CO2 is converted into other chemicals through the use of an electrical current and a chemical reaction, aided by a catalyst.

Many metals can serve as catalysts in this type of reaction: gold, silver and zinc can make carbon monoxide, while tin and paladium can make formate. Only copper can produce ethylene, the core component of polyethylene plastic.

"Copper is a bit of a magic metal. It's magic because it can make many different chemicals, like methane, ethylene, and ethanol, but controlling what it makes is difficult," said Phil De Luna, PhD student at the University of Toronto in Canada.

Researchers were able to design a catalyst and pinpoint the ideal conditions to maximise ethylene production while minimizing the methane output to nearly nothing.

Paired with carbon capture technology, this could lead to an incredibly green production mechanism for everyday plastics, meanwhile sequestering harmful greenhouse gases.

"I think the future will be filled with technologies that make value out of waste. It's exciting because we are working towards developing new and sustainable ways to meet the energy demands of the future," said De Luna.

By identifying the precise conditions that maximize ethylene production during the reaction, it is possible to engineer a catalyst to meet those conditions.

In cooling tower water, to reduce pH we are using sulphuric acid and what is the adverse effect if we use Hydro chloric acid ?

When makeup water sulfate is high and/or the tower is operated at high cycles, sulfuric acid feed can lead to calcium sulfate scaling. Sometimes, hydrochloric acid is used instead of sulfuric acid in such cases. However, this can result in high chloride levels, which often contribute significantly to increased corrosion rates-especially pitting and/or stress cracking of stainless steel.

Whether caustic (NaOH) can be used as pH booster in HP dosing in place of TSP?

Caustic can be used in HP dozing, but not in place of TSP. Rather it can be used along with TSP. If for some reason, your boiler pH is going down, but your phosphate level is ok, then one can use Caustic to increase the Na:PO4 molar ratio. Only thing is that you must check the M and P alkalinity of Boiler Water and maintain it less than equal to 0

Tata Motors becomes first company in India to launch commercial vehicles with Electronic Stability Control (ESC)

Tata Motors has announced that it will be equipping it medium and heavy commercial vehicles (CV) with Electronic Stability Control (ESCsmart) with an objective of making Indian roads safer. The brand showcased the ESCsmart system for its range of PRIMA and SIGNA trucks on 4th October. In addition to this, it also offers Automatic Traction Control (ATC) and Hill Start Aid (HSA) safety technology for the range of trucks and buses.
With this, Tata Motors has become the first to add ESC to its CVs. Developed in partnership with WABCO INDIA, these technologies provide vehicle stability, reducing accident risk, repair cost and improving vehicle uptime, thus enhancing road safety and efficiency of commercial vehicles. ESCsmart will be available on Prima - Tractors 4025.S, 4925 and Trucks 2523T, 3123T and 3723T and SignaLPS 4018 and LPS 4923 as well as LPT platforms of 25T, 31T and 37T.

Understanding ESC
The ESC functionality is added on Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) which was introduced as a part of regulatory compliance as per CENTRAL MOTORS Vehicle Rules promulgated by Government of India for all vehicles more than 12 tonne GVW. While ABS contributes significantly to the safety of vehicles under different road conditions, ESC takes it to the next level, thereby preventing or minimising the probability of accidents.
Functionally ESC predicts forthcoming instability and automatically intervenes by applying brakes to avoid a rollover, skidding and jack-knifing. It measures vehicle's lateral acceleration, roll about its vertical axis through sensors, and applies brakes on selective wheels to control instability. Benefits to the customers shall be in terms of preventing jack-knifing in tractor-trailer, improve directional stability during dynamic manoeuvres, prevent roll over during turning at high speed.
"Tata Motors has always been at the forefront of technology innovation and we have constantly endeavoured to provide a differentiated experience to our discerning customers. Safety is of paramount importance to us and the introduction of new safety technologies further reiterates our commitment to strengthen the safety performance of our products and introduce future technologies, ahead of time," Girish Wagh, Head - Commercial Vehicles, Tata Motors Ltd, said.
"We are the first OEM in India who is deploying Electronic Stability Control (ESCsmart) safety technology in all our Medium and Heavy Commercial Vehicles. We are delighted to work with class-leading global suppliers like WABCO to develop innovative and technology leading products for our Indian customers."

Inherent Control Valve Flow Characteristics

The most common characteristics are shown in the figure below. The percent of flow through the valve is plotted against valve stem position. The curves shown are typical of those available from valve manufacturers. These curves are based on constant pressure drop across the valve and are called inherent flow characteristics.
  • Linear - flow capacity increases linearly with valve travel.
  • Equal percentage - flow capacity increases exponentially with valve trim travel. Equal increments of valve travel produce equal percentage changes in the existing Cv.
  • A modified parabolic characteristic is approximately midway between linear and equal-percentage characteristics. It provides fine throttling at low flow capacity and approximately linear characteristics at higher flow capacity.
  • Quick opening provides large changes in flow for very small changes in lift. It usually has too high a valve gain for use in modulating control. So it is limited to on-off service, such as sequential operation in either batch or semi-continuous processes.
  • Hyperbolic
  • Square Root